The Soldier's Monitor book. During the exceptionally cold winter month of February, 1778, it appeared that the colonialists’ cause for freedom was slowly being strangled by a superior force. FREE! Steuben, que plusieurs historiens croient homosexuel, ne s'est jamais marié et donna sa terre à ses deux assistants qui vivaient avec lui. From 1785 until his death in 1794, he served as president of the German Society of the City of New York, a charitable society founded in 1784 to assist German immigrants. Arrangements were made for Steuben to be paid following the successful completion of the war according to his contributions.  He served as a second lieutenant during the Seven Years' War in 1756, and was wounded at the 1757 Battle of Prague. On September 5, 1788, the New Jersey Legislature gave Baron von Steuben full title to the former Zabriskie estate. Ses capacités de gestionnaire étant limitées, il se retrouve une fois de plus en difficulté financière. Within weeks, Walker was Steuben's aide-de-camp.. His secretary, Du Ponceau, then translated the drills from German into French, and a secretary for Washington translated it to English. Facts about Baron von Steuben talk about Friedrich Wilhelm August Heinrich Ferdinand Steuben. Steuben conçut un plan d'installation dans lequel des quartiers étaient construits pour le commandant, les officiers, ainsi que pour les hommes du rang. In 1777, he traveled to France, where he heard talk of glories and riches to be won in a revolution across the Atlantic Ocean. In 1764 Steuben became chamberlain to Fürst Josef Friedrich Wilhelm of Hohenzollern-Hechingen. , In 2007, a popular documentary DVD was released by LionHeart FilmWorks and director Kevin Hershberger titled Von Steuben's Continentals: The First American Army. He was a low level noble, the English equivalent of a Baron. Plus tard, il voyage en compagnie de Nathanael Greene, le nouveau commandant de la Campagne du Sud. Steuben est né à Magdeburg en Prusse. Despite his education by a Catholic order, von Steuben remained critical of Roman Catholicism. It was opened as a public museum in September 1939.  Several buildings are named for Steuben, among them Von Steuben Metropolitan High School in Chicago, Illinois, as well as one of the cadet barracks buildings at Valley Forge Military Academy and College. It is often considered the German-American event of the year. " A third young man, John W. Mulligan (1774–1862), also considered himself one of Steuben's "sons"; he inherited Von Steuben's vast library, collection of maps and $2,500 in cash. L'année suivante, il prend part, en tant que général-major, au siège de Yorktown en Virginie. In 1783, General Von Steuben joined General Knox at Vail's Gate, near West Point, in the fall of 1782 and in early 1783 moved to the Verplanck homestead, at Mount Gulian, across the Hudson River from Washington's headquarters in Newburgh. Durant la Première Guerre mondiale, le navire de ligne allemand, Plusieurs lieux aux États-Unis portent le nom de Steuben, la plupart en son honneur. Pendant les premières années de la guerre, ils utilisent leur baïonnette comme ustensile de cuisine ou outil plutôt que comme arme de combat. I support my present poverty with more heroism than I Expected. L'année suivante il reçoit le titre de Baron lorsqu'il devient chambellan à la cour de justice des princes d'Hechingen, une branche catholique de la maison de Hohenzollern. The house looks much as it did after Steuben renovated it. Read reviews from world’s largest community for readers. La guerre au XVIIIe siècle était assez simple une fois la bataille engagée. Failing to find funds, they returned to Germany in 1775, deeply in debt. Von Steuben died on November 28, 1794, at his estate in Oneida County, and was buried in a grove at what became the Steuben Memorial State Historic Site.  In August 1759 he was wounded a second time at the Battle of Kunersdorf. Un autre programme mis en place par Steuben consistait à installer des sanitaires dans le camp. He turned the volunteers into a great army.". Some 21st century publications, however, have embraced him as "a gay man", "openly gay", or as "the gay man who saved the American Revolution". , The Baron, his Italian Greyhound Azor (which he took with him everywhere), his young aide-de-camp Louis de Pontière, his military secretary, Peter Stephen Du Ponceau (then called Pierre Etienne Du Ponceau), and two other companions, reached Portsmouth, New Hampshire, on December 1, 1777, where they were almost arrested for being British because Steuben had mistakenly outfitted them in red uniforms. On May 5, 1778, on General Washington's recommendation, Congress appointed Steuben inspector general of the army, with the rank and pay of major general. Il devient citoyen américain en 1783.  A copy was dedicated in Potsdam, Germany in 1911, and destroyed during World War II. All Clubs and parties are renounced, I seldom leave the House. Sign Up. Lorsqu'un animal mourait, il était débarrassé de sa viande et les restes étaient laissés à l'abandon. Colonel Alexander Hamilton and General Nathanael Greene were of great help in assisting Steuben in drafting a training program for the Army. In the Battle of Stony Point, Continental Army soldiers attacked with unloaded muskets and won the battle solely on Steuben's bayonet training. Inspector General's Office, United States.  Towards the end of his life, Steuben indicated in a letter that "an inconsiderate step and an implacable personal enemy" led to his leaving the Prussian army.  It is here he met his reputed future lover, Captain Benjamin Walker.  On February 5, 1778, Steuben and his party arrived in York, Pennsylvania, where the Continental Congress had relocated after being ousted from Philadelphia by the British advance. Von Steuben would have to go to America strictly as a volunteer, and present himself to Congress. Steuben avait le titre d'inspecteur général : il rédigea un manuel de tactique pour cette armée en formation, remodela son organisation, constitua un encadrement efficace, et améliora sa discipline. He set aside his lavish lifestyle to stand next to his good friend, George Washington, and transform a ragtag group of farmers and hunters into the world’s premier fighting force. , The first results of Steuben's training were in evidence at the Battle of Barren Hill, May 20, 1778, and then again at the Battle of Monmouth in June 1778. Selon sa volonté, exprimée dans son testament, il fut enveloppé dans son manteau, placé dans un simple cercueil de bois, et mis en terre sans pierre et sans inscription pour indiquer le lieu de sépulture. La personnalité éclectique de Steuben contribua à augmenter son aura. He was one of the fathers of the Continental Army in teaching them the essentials of military drills, tactics, and discipline. L'essence même du combat durant cette guerre était un affrontement entre deux lignes rapprochées, dans lequel celle qui gagnait était en général la ligne qui effectuait une première salve, en essuyait une en retour et rechargeait plus rapidement que l'ennemi pour tirer de nouveau. Life of Frederick William Von Steuben; Major General in the Revolutionary Army: Kapp, Friedrich: Amazon.sg: Books Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben was a Prussian Army officer who volunteered to come to the American colonies and serve as inspector general for the Continental Army.  Because homosexuality was criminalized at the time, records of his relationships are limited to references in correspondences. Voulant trouver un regain de fortune, Steuben cherche un poste au sein d'armées étrangères telles que celles de la maison de Habsbourg-Lorraine, de Bade ou de France. FRIEDRICH VON STEUBEN: Savior of the Army “Savior of the Army” may indeed sound hyperbolic. Le plan qu'il avait conçu à Valley Forge servit de base à cet ouvrage. Il passe donc ses premières années en Russie, mais sa famille retourne vers le Saint-Empire romain germanique alors qu'il n'a que 10 ans. "Baron von Steuben, Washington's Drillmaster. Steuben participe aussi à la Campagne du Sud au cours de l'été 1781, avec comme point culminant la livraison de 450 soldats de Virginie à La Fayette en juin. Language: English. Pour que ces deux capacités soient acquises par les troupes, il fallait que le cycle de chargement et de feu de l'arme soit répété à l'entraînement jusqu'à ce qu'il devienne automatique.  Von Steuben, acting as Alexander Hamilton's surrogate, laid the cornerstone of the school. Son service est alors suffisamment apprécié pour qu'il reçoive par la suite un poste au sein des quartiers généraux de Frédéric II. Il se fait avancer des fonds et quitte l'Europe depuis Marseille. , During the winter of 1778–1779, Steuben prepared Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States, commonly known as the "Blue Book". , Baron von Steuben was born in the fortress town of Magdeburg, Germany, on September 17, 1730, the son of Royal Prussian Engineer Capt.  In the same year, he was appointed deputy quartermaster at the general headquarters. In May 1783, Steuben presided over the founding of the Society of the Cincinnati. , In 1786 during Shays' Rebellion, under the written name "Bellisarius", Steuben made suggestions of an oligarchy in the Massachusetts government.. He was famous as the Prussian born American military officer. Dr. Tolzmann continues his efforts to spotlight the historical contributions of German-Americans in this new edition of Rudolf Cronau's landmark biography of Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben.  During the Cold War, the U.S. Navy submarine USS Von Steuben was named for him. On February 23, 1778, Frederick William Baron von Steuben reported to General George Washington at the Continental Army's bleak winder encampment at Valley Forge. The State of New Jersey took possession of the historic mansion and one acre of ground for $9,000 on June 27, 1928. Il est considéré comme l'un des pères fondateurs de l'US Army. They met again in Paris in 1777. Sa formation apporterait par la suite aux soldats américains les connaissances techniques nécessaires pour créer une armée. Son expérience en tant qu'officier d'état-major général dans l'armée Prussienne lui donna alors un savoir qui était inconnu des armées britannique et française de l'époque. , Steuben picked 120 men from various regiments to form an honor guard for General Washington, and used them to demonstrate military training to the rest of the troops. , Von Steuben was one of four European military leaders who assisted the U.S. cause during the Revolution and was honored with a statue in Lafayette Square, just north of the White House, in Washington, D.C. Lorsqu'il est parti en Amérique, en 1777, ses relations avec de jeunes garçons commençaient à être connues en Prusse, ce qui l'a sans doute poussé à changer d'environnement. Les deux hommes assistèrent Steuben dans la création d'un programme d'entraînement qui reçut l'approbation du commandant en chef en mars.  The estate became part of the town of Steuben, New York, which was named for him. It was installed in the Dahlem district, in what had been the U.S. sector of the formerly divided city. He served as Inspector General and a Major General of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. A copy is in Utica, New York. Then, in February, 1778, a Prussian nobleman by the name of Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben arrived. Les techniques d'entraînement de l'armée continentale, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Friedrich_Wilhelm_von_Steuben&oldid=177445601, Personnalité prussienne de la guerre de Sept Ans, Personnalité allemande de la guerre d'indépendance des États-Unis, Récipiendaire de l'ordre de la Fidélité (Bade), Membre de la Société américaine de philosophie, Article contenant un appel à traduction en anglais, Article de Wikipédia avec notice d'autorité, Portail:Époque contemporaine/Articles liés, Portail:Révolution américaine/Articles liés, Portail:Forces armées des États-Unis/Articles liés, Portail:Biographie/Articles liés/Militaire, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence, Un rapport de la visite en Amérique de plusieurs membres de sa famille est disponible ici, Le nom de Steuben a également été donné à plusieurs navires de guerre. American National Biography - Volume 16 - Page 513. n.b.  In 1769 the Duchess of Wurttemberg, niece of Frederick the Great, presented him with the Cross of the Order of De la Fidelite.  Steuben gave assistance to Washington in demobilizing the army in 1783 as well as aiding in the defense plan of the new nation. In World War I the captured German ship SS Kronprinz Wilhelm was renamed as USS Von Steuben, and in World War II there was the Dampfschiff General von Steuben, an ill-fated German luxury passenger ship which was turned into an armed transport ship during the war. In 1747, at 17, von Steuben enlisted in the Prussian army as a lance-corporal. 1985, Dover Books, ISBN 0-486-24934-4. Von Steuben was present at the first inauguration of George Washington in New York in 1789. , Upon the reduction of the army at the end of the war, in 1763, Steuben was one of many officers who found themselves unemployed. Many people call him as Baron von Steuben. ", The Historic Society of Pennsylvania, Simon Gratz Collection (#250), Case 4, Box 13 William North /Benjamin Walker Letters, Whitridge, Arnold. Speaking virtually no English and at an unexpected ebb in his professional fortunes, Steuben nevertheless brought a depth of military training and grasp of command techniques sorely needed by the bedraggled, ragtag army. Major General Friedrich Vilhelm von Steuben. In 1764 Steuben became to Fürst Josef Friedrich Wilhelm of Hohenzollern-Hechingen.  Following Baron Steuben's death, North divided the property bequeathed to him among his military companions. Perform online research to identify the book and briefly describe - 14543053 Gen. Philemon Dickinson of the New Jersey Militia informed the baron of this gift and responded to his inquiries that "there are on the premises an exceeding good House, an excellent barn, together with many useful outbuildings, all of which I am told, want some repairs...there is...a Grist-mill; a good Orchard, some meadow Ground, & plenty of Wood.  Statues of Steuben by J. Otto Schweizer can be found in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, and Utica, New York, in addition to an equestrian statue by Schweizer in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. With his guidance, the troops kept the gears turning. There are copies in Germany, at Berlin-Dahlem, Magdeburg and Potsdam. General. ", The current revision of this book is available for download from the US Army directly, "Frederick William Augustus von Steuben, Baron.". , Steuben became a U.S. citizen by act of the Pennsylvania legislature in March 1784 and later by the New York authorities in July 1786. Il devient citoyen américain par un acte législatif de Pennsylvanie en mars 1784 (et plus tard par les autorités de New-York en juillet 1786).  A bust of Steuben is in the garden of the German Embassy in Washington, D.C., The Steuben House, presented to Steuben as a gift for his services in the Continental Army, is located at New Bridge Landing in River Edge, New Jersey. For ships named after General von Steuben, see, Stephen C. Danckert, "Baron von Steuben and the Training of Armies.  They were extravagantly entertained in Boston. Washington appointed von Steuben as temporary inspector general. Il découvre alors que Benjamin Franklin se trouve à Paris et que probablement il pourrait obtenir un emploi au sein de l'armée continentale en Amérique. It is under the jurisdiction of the Historic New Bridge Landing Park Commission. The German-American Steuben Parade has been taking place since 1958. Un effort particulier était fait sur ces exercices d'alignement car une bonne formation était garante d'une efficacité accrue lors des salves. The 60-minute, live-action documentary details the life, uniforms, camp life, food, weapons, equipment and drill of the Continental soldier 1775–1781, as taught and developed by Baron von Steuben.. Pour corriger le fait que de nouvelles recrues étaient insérées dans des unités sans avoir subi un entraînement au préalable, Steuben introduit un système d'entraînement progressif, qui commence avec l'école du soldat, avec et sans armes, et se poursuit à l'école du régiment. A gift to Steuben from the State of New Jersey, this is the only extant house he owned. L'hiver suivant (1779-1780), sa commission représentait Washington au Congrès sur les questions relatives à la réorganisation de l'armée. They did this every single night so Washington could command his soldiers in the morning.  Von Steuben formally adopted Walker and North and made them his heirs. Librarian's tip: "Baron von Steuben" begins on p. 11.  Philadelphia hosts a smaller Steuben Parade in the Northeast section of the city. Participants march, dance, wear German costumes and play German music, and the event is attended by millions of people. A new cast was given in honor of German-American friendship in 1987, and to celebrate the 750th anniversary of the founding of Berlin. General von Steuben Drilling Washington's Army at Valley Forge (1915), J. Otto Schweizer, sculptor. He was one of the fathers of the Continental Army in teaching them the essentials of military drills, tactics, and discipline. The Bergen County Historical Society opens the building for special events. La précision l'était encore plus.  When his father entered the service of Empress Anna of Russia, young Friedrich went with him to Crimea and then to Kronstadt, staying until the Russian war against the Turks under General Burkhard Christoph von Münnich. Friedrich Wilhelm Rudolf Gerhard August, Freiherr von Steuben, a Prussian military officer, arrives at General George Washingtons encampment at Valley Forge on this day in 1778 and commences training soldiers in close-order drill, instilling new confidence and discipline in the demoralized Continental Army. Dès qu'un individu savait manier son mousquet, on le plaçait dans un groupe de trois, puis dans un groupe de douze, et ensuite commençaient les manœuvres en groupe. :63 Originally, von Steuben's family were Protestants in the Kingdom of Prussia, and after his emigration to America he became a member of the Reformed German Church, a Reformed congregation in New York. Steuben established standards of sanitation and camp layouts that would still be standard a century and a half later. , In 1763 Steuben had been formally introduced to the future French Minister of War, Claude Louis, Comte de Saint-Germain, in Hamburg. Durant la guerre de Sept Ans, il est membre d'une unité d'infanterie mais également un officier d'état-major. En 1780, il participe à la cour martiale jugeant John André, un officier de l'armée britannique convaincu d'espionnage. Friedrich Wilhelm Von Steuben is on Facebook. À la bataille de Stony Point (en), les soldats américains sous les ordres du général Anthony Wayne attaquèrent un avant-poste britannique avec des fusils non chargés et remportèrent la victoire, en se fondant sur l'entraînement prodigué par Steuben. Steuben would help in the defense of Virginia with approximately 1,000 militia fighting a delaying action in the Battle of Blandford. Legislators initially conditioned the grant, requiring Steuben to "hold, occupy and enjoy the said estate in person, and not by tenant." Facebook gives people the power to … Steuben House, River Edge, New Jersey. La chance le rattrape alors, car il est admis au service du roi de France par le ministre de la Guerre français Claude-Louis, comte de Saint-Germain, qui réalise tout le bénéfice que pourrait apporter un officier d'état-major prussien. Friedrich Wilhelm August Heinrich Ferdinand von Steuben was born September 17, 1730, at Magdeburg. Après la guerre, il reçoit des concessions de terrain dans plusieurs états et finalement le Congrès lui octroie une pension de 2400 $. When Frederich Wilhelm von Steuben, a colorful, charismatic, imposing, and gay military leader from Prussia, presented himself to the Continental Congress in 1778, he had one goal in mind: to whip the nascent United States militiamen into shape and turn them into an army fit to face the likes of Great Britain. Current City and Hometown. It is now one of the largest organizations for Americans of German descent. Steuben traveled to Ireland in the summer of 1777. , On May 2, 1779, during the second Middlebrook encampment, a review of the army was held to honor the French minister Conrad Alexandre Gérard de Rayneval and the Spanish diplomat Juan de Miralles. Baron von Steuben (1915), J. Otto Schweizer, sculptor, Valley Forge National Historical Park, Pennsylvania. War Department. Pendant l'hiver 1778-1779, il rédige Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States (« Règles d'ordre et de discipline des troupes des États-Unis ») aussi connu sous le nom de Blue book (« Livre bleu »). Contrary to many online articles, this phrase does not appear in Steuben's final Will: Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States, Valley Forge Military Academy and College, American Revolutionary War#American strategy, "Friedrich von Steuben: A Closer Look at the 'Father' of the NCO Corps", "Steuben, Frederick William Augustus Henry Ferdinand von", Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography, https://www.ushistory.org/valleyforge/served/steuben.html, http://loyolanotredamelib.org/php/report05/articles/pdfs/Report35Pritchett19-26.pdf, The Father of the U.S. military Was A Gay Man, The Revolutionary War Hero Who Was Openly Gay, The Gay Man Who Saved The American Revolution, "German-American Steuben Parade of New York", "Ferris Bueller took his day off 30 years ago today", Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, "Die Geschichte der Steubenparade in New York – in Erinnerung an Baron Steuben", "Friedrich von Steuben Memorial, Magdeburg", "Memorial stone for Hamilton-Oneida Academy building", Guide to the Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben Papers at the New-York Historical Society, Works by or about Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben. At age 10 he returned to Germany and attended more formal schooling.  An additional cast is in Steuben's home town of Magdeburg. He inquired about serving in the British, French, and Austrian armies, but no positions materialized. Par exemple, le, Steuben est un des quatre chefs militaires étrangers ayant servi la cause de la révolution américaine à avoir une statue dans le, Une maison lui ayant été donnée en reconnaissance de ses services dans l'armée continentale, la. On December 23, 1783, the state of New Jersey presented him with the use of an estate in Bergen County now known as Steuben House, which had been confiscated from Loyalist Jan Zabriskie in 1781. He was advanced travel funds and left Europe from Marseilles on Friday, September 26, 1777, on board the frigate Flamand. Steuben passed away on 28 November 1794. During the spring of 1781, he aided Greene in the campaign in the South, culminating in the delivery of 450 Virginia Continentals to Lafayette in June.  It was used by the United States Army until 1814, and affected U.S. drills and tactics until the Mexican–American War of 1846. , In 1780 Steuben sat on the court-martial of the British Army officer Major John André, captured and charged with espionage in conjunction with the defection of General Benedict Arnold.  He served as adjutant to the free battalion of General Johann von Mayr and was promoted to first lieutenant in 1759. He served as Inspector General and a Major General of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. or. The son of Lieutenant Wilhelm von Steuben, a military engineer, and Elizabeth von Jagvodin, he spent some of his early years in Russia after his father was assigned to assist Czarina Anna. Located in the formerly strategic New Bridge Landing, the estate included a gristmill and about 40 acres (16 ha) of land. Men relieved themselves where they wished, and when an animal died it was stripped of its meat and the rest was left to rot where it lay. The Baron's willingness and ability to work with the men, as well as his use of profanity (in several different languages), made him popular among the soldiers. Friedrich Wilhelm August Heinrich Ferdinand Steuben also referred to as Baron von Steuben . Most of his adolescent years were spent in Russia, but with his father at the age of 10, they returned to Germany. General Von Steuben, Revolutionary War hero and his Soldiers manual.\r\r\r\rGet your free audio book: On February 23, 1778, Frederick William Baron von Steuben reported to General George Washington at .\r\rPaul Lockhart recounts the life of Baron De Steuben who was responsible for training the Continental Army in battle tactics that would later help Washingtons .\r\r. Led by General William Smallwood, four battalions performed precise military formations to demonstrate their mastery of Steuben's training. L'aide de camp de Washington, Alexander Hamilton, ainsi que le général-major Nathanael Greene furent d'un grand secours à ce sujet. Mais peut-être que la plus grande contribution de Steuben à la révolution américaine fut l'entraînement à l'utilisation de la baïonnette. In February 1778, just after Conway fell from grace and the Army should begin training for the next campaign, Friedrich Wilhelm Ludolf Gerhard Augustin the Baron von Steuben arrived at Valley Forge as a new volunteer from Prussia. He was the only courtier to accompany his incognito prince to France in 1771, hoping to borrow money. A month later, recognizing his financial embarrassment, Steuben wrote another former aide-de-camp and companion, William North, recognizing: "The Jersey Estate must and is to be sold. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.  Thus, he left his estate to his companions and aides-de-camp, Captain Benjamin Walker and Major General William North, with whom he had had an "extraordinarily intense emotional relationship ... treating them as surrogate sons. Il s'agissait d'un combat rapproché, fait de salves successives, et où la rapidité de feu était d'une importance majeure. Wilhelm von Steuben and his wife, Elizabeth von Jagvodin. Steuben, qui servait alors au sein du quartier général de Washington durant l'été 1778, fut le premier à percevoir que l'ennemi se dirigeait vers Montmouth. :289 He later traveled with Nathanael Greene, the new commander of the Southern campaign.  He subsequently attained the rank of captain, and served as aide-de-camp to Frederick the Great; in 1762 he was one of 13 young officers chosen to participate in a special course of instruction delivered by the king himself.  However, based on the limited historical record, it is impossible to prove. As luck would have it, he had formally been introduced to the French Minister of War, Claude Louis, Comte de S… Franklin, however, was unable to offer Steuben a rank or pay in the American army. Life of Frederick William von Steuben: Major General in the Revolutionary Army [Kapp, Friedrich] on Amazon.com. FREE! Friedrich Wilhelm August Heinrich Ferdinand von Steuben, also referred to as Baron von Steuben, was a Prussian and later an American military officer. During this period he spent time in the Crimea as well as Kronstadt. The house and surrounding farmland were seized in 1781 from a Loyalist family.  At Valley Forge, he began close relationships with Benjamin Walker and William North, then both military officers in their 20s. His inspections saved the army an estimated loss of five to eight thousand muskets. Steuben laid out a plan to have rows for command, officers, and enlisted men. The distance from N York by land 15 miles, but you may keep a boat & go from your own door to N York by water—Oysters, Fish & wild fowl in abundance—Possession will be given to you in the Spring, when you will take a view of the premises. Il meurt célibataire en 1794, laissant sa propriété à ses deux anciens assistants, William North et Benjamin Walker. Kitchens and latrines were on opposite sides of the camp, with latrines on the downhill side. To appreciate the contributions von Steuben (1730-94) made to the American Revolution, consider this: Before his arrival in Valley Forge in 1778, the Revolutionary Army had lost several battles to Great Britain and, without him, the United States of America might still be the British colonies.  Its basis was the training plan he had devised at Valley Forge.  Steuben found waiting for him allegations that he engaged in homosexual relationships with young men while in the service of Prince Josef Friedrich Wilhelm of Hohenzollern-Hechingen. Il établit sa résidence à New-York où il devient une figure notable et patriarche de l'église protestante allemande. Washington recommande alors Steuben pour un poste d'inspecteur général le 30 avril, ce que le Congrès approuve le 5 mai. He went out into the camp to talk with the officers and men, inspect their huts, and scrutinize their equipment. In 1769, he started using the title of baron, based on a falsified lineage prepared by his father.He was the only courtier to accompany his incognito prince to France in 1771, hoping to borrow money. Steuben's eccentric personality greatly enhanced his mystique. Cuisines et latrines se trouvaient à l'opposé les unes des autres, ces dernières se situant en aval. There are few historians today who would doubt that Baron Friedrich Wilhelm Von Steuben was gay. The German-American Steuben Parade is held annually in September in New York City. 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Steuben established standards of sanitation and camp layouts that would still be standard a century a! 28 juin particulier était fait sur ces exercices d'alignement car une bonne formation était garante d'une efficacité accrue lors salves.